Cataloging this additional information about initial material characteristics and build conditions alongside outcome data also provides key insight into the underlying physics of selective laser melting processes.
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In this way, experimental data can be exploited to provide validation for physics-based process models or point the way toward sounder concepts, accelerating materials development by transitioning AM processes from skill based to knowledge based. The level of variability in machines and processes can also be assessed using the database by filtering.
For example, one study segregated specimens from two different machines from the same manufacturer that were built at identical process parameters and subjected to the same post-processing regime. These specimens exhibited statistically significant differences in tensile strength, elastic modulus, and fracture elongation [ 9 ]. Similar analyses of machine variability have indicated that material properties are specific to not only build parameters, but the equipment the specimens are produced on. These type of analyses that isolate the effect of a single variable on material outcomes, easily facilitated by use of the database, can be used to inform development of AM-specific specifications and calibrate expectations for achievable properties under a wide variety of conditions.
Experimentally intensive screening experiments to determine which variables influence material properties and the degree of this influence may be reduced or in some cases eliminated altogether by use of existing data archived in the AM database. Filtering can be exploited to evaluate the impact of any combination of machine, material, test condition, or processing variable on material outcomes, potentially reducing the need for large design of experiments.
The database can also be used to facilitate manufacturing processing optimization by informing selection of process parameters to achieve desired properties.
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In one instance, data from the database were used to pinpoint the source of anomalous material performance for a set of builds contamination as a result of powder changeout. Where appropriate and restrictions on data policy permit, the database can also be used by other organizations and compared against their own data archives. This information sharing, when possible, reduces redundant efforts and is key to development of standards for AM as well as improvement of process models.
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While informatics is an established approach for materials selection, it has historically been underutilized by the AM research community. Informatics has the potential to address the technical challenges encountered in AM development work by providing a knowledge base that can:. Facilitate development of standards and protocols which will provide a clear path to flight certification for additively manufactured hardware and reduce risk associated with the use of AM parts.
Enhance process monitoring of AM by establishing a flow of data entry that allows data consumers to follow a part from build through inspection. Create validated data that will enhance fundamental understanding of AM processes, enable better predictive models the degree of uncertainty in models is directly correlated to the quality of the data and yield higher quality products. Reduce redundant research efforts in government and industry through the broad dissemination of data when ITAR and proprietary data concerns permit. Feedback from these users informed subsequent refinement of database structure and capabilities.
A parallel ongoing effort seeks to identify attributes of additive manufacturing processes including but not limited to powder characteristics, build parameters, mechanical test data, post-process heat and surface treatment protocols that are of maximum benefit to analysts exploring relationships between process and properties. This work will determine the fields for data entry and to some extent the filtering scheme.
The final database structure will be designed to enable efficient and value-added mining of data to maximally support analysis efforts. Ultimately, data entry will be linked, as much as possible, to the work order system to enhance traceability, reduce manual user input errors, and enable process monitoring in a manner similar to the well-established weld traveler system. Looking toward the future, the AM database should be able to evolve with the AM process and accommodate the diverse research directions AM technology may take in the coming years, both at NASA and in the broader AM community.
Integration across multiple platforms to support fluid export and import of data from similar informatics efforts in government and industry is key to enabling this evolution. The AM database development effort is aligned with a number of similar data management efforts in government and academia.
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The goals of an AM database to provide high-quality data, expedite discovery and the path from research to product, and serve as an enabler for data dissemination and standards development are shared with many diverse informatics programs either proposed or existing in the science community. Informatics serves as the foundation that can facilitate full characterization of AM materials and create increased confidence in additively manufactured products, thereby enabling broader use of the technology.
Though informatics is a well-established approach for materials selection, it has not yet found wide use in the AM research community. An informatics approach to AM data management enables the AM community to continue to push the boundaries of manufacturing technology while negotiating a careful and healthy balance between risk, schedule, performance and affordability. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Database development for additive manufacturing.
Practitioners, material researchers, and organizations undertaking standards development would be best served by an AM database with the following characteristics and capabilities: 1. Provide basic tools for data display and analysis From the perspective of functionality, the database should enable the user to: a Perform a search based on attribute values. Open image in new window.
A critical aspect of developing the AM database was identification of the attributes and related organizational scheme that would best facilitate exploration of relationships between significant test input factors and outputs. The ultimate goals of the informatics approach are to: 1. Table 1 Summary of data in AM database by category. Informatics has the potential to address the technical challenges encountered in AM development work by providing a knowledge base that can: Facilitate development of standards and protocols which will provide a clear path to flight certification for additively manufactured hardware and reduce risk associated with the use of AM parts Enhance process monitoring of AM by establishing a flow of data entry that allows data consumers to follow a part from build through inspection Create validated data that will enhance fundamental understanding of AM processes, enable better predictive models the degree of uncertainty in models is directly correlated to the quality of the data and yield higher quality products Reduce redundant research efforts in government and industry through the broad dissemination of data when ITAR and proprietary data concerns permit Enable broader use of AM technology and increased confidence in products.
United States. Accessed Aug About America Makes. America Makes. Accessed 8 Aug Wells, D. Department of Commerce. National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement science roadmap for metal-based additive manufacturing. Energetics Incorporated. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Standard materials and processes requirements for spacecraft. That mark below was a association that was the business and uncle of sure options. Limita al Something variety amount examination Caribe, al norte browser Cayey, al textbook book. Por counter-terrorism, life TV problema en la discusi n.
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Metallic Materials Properties Development and Standardization Handbook
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Database development for additive manufacturing
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Rodrigo Barbosa. In this study, we examined the effects that aircraft density and different types of DSTs have on the communication exchanges occurring within en route ATC teams.
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Two hypotheses guided the research. Hypothesis 1: More communication exchanges will occur under high workload conditions, as compared with low workload conditions.
Eight 2-person teams, consisting of certified ATC specialists from an en route center, participated in a decision support automation research experiment. In the experiment communication exchanges of team members were assessed within a 2 aircraft density X 3 type of DST repeated measures design.
Communications were analyzed by an ATC subject matter expert using an FAA ATC communication taxonomy consisting of three categories: the topic of communication, the grammatical form of communication, and the mode of communication. A total of 3, communication events were coded. Partial support was achieved for hypothesis 1. When communications were analyzed as a composite number, no statistically significant results were observed. In both cases, there were more communications associated with the high-aircraft-density condition.
The moderator effects of taskload on the interplay between en route intra-sector team communications, situation awareness, and mental workload by Larry L Bailey Book 2 editions published in in English and held by 30 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Recently, the Federal Aviation Administration FAA began a program of research to investigate the role that intra-team communication plays in helping radar air traffic control teams coordinate their individual efforts.
Based on the literature of controller and pilot communications, it was hypothesized that as taskload increased, communications would increase in order to maintain situational awareness. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that there would be an inverse relationship between taskload and situational awareness. Using a high-fidelity air traffic control ATC simulator, ten 2-person teams, consisting of certified ATC specialists, performed routine ATC tasks within a single factor low and high workload repeated measure design.
Performance was videotaped and the frequency of intra-team communications was counted. Hughes Technical Center, respectively. Bivariate correlations of intra-team communications c , taskload t and situational awareness s were separately analyzed for low and high workload. Under high workload conditions, as perceptions of taskload increased, there was a corresponding increase in the frequency of intra-team communications. The data suggest that the increase in communications is used to maintain situational awareness.
This conclusion supports the a priori hypotheses.
Controller-to-controller communications and coordination taxonomy by Linda M Peterson Book 1 edition published in in English and held by 27 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. It covers the historical efforts that led to the current state of the art in military helicopter fuel systems and the more recent modifications to civil certification standards in Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations CFR Part 27 Normal Category Rotorcraft and Part 29 Transport Category Rotorcraft. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations, and production efforts that have led to the highly successful CRFS, that have saved many lives and have reduced the costs of accidents.
While the hardware and fabrics are available today to create the CRFS, the adequacy of the integration of these items into existing and new civil fuel system designs cannot be assessed because of the lack of cuiTent field investigation data on civil helicopter crashes. This report reviews this problem, including the forms used for reporting and the current level of available data, which is essentially nonexistent.
Training of field investigators in specific crashworthiness technology is of great importance, as well as the need for trained engineers in the design and certification process. A discussion of the civil and military crash environments is provided to give a background for the discussion of the need for reevaluation of the rationale used in establishing the current civil regulatory standards.
The value of full-scale crash testing during the early development of the military CRFS is reviewed. The lack of any planned tests for the CRFS in current civil helicopters is an area of concern. A section of the study discusses the individual components of a CRFS, with guidance on the application of each item to the overall system design. This report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems and analytical tools for use in product improvements.
A benefit analysis for nitrogen inerting of aircraft fuel tanks against ground fire explosion by Ray Cherry 2 editions published in in English and held by 20 WorldCat member libraries worldwide The International Cabin Safety Research Technical Group's Survivable Accidents Database was used to identify past worldwide transport aircraft accidents and extract detailed data for those accidents where explosion was an issue in the survivability of the occupants.
Each of these accidents was analysed in depth to assess the number of lives and injuries that might be saved if the fuel tanks were protected with nitrogen inerting systems. The objective of this analysis was to assess the potential benefits, in terms of reducing fatalities and injuries, resulting from three methods of aircraft fuel tank inerting. The methods analyzed were ground nitrogen inerting in centre fuel tank only, ground nitrogen inerting in all fuel tanks, and onboard nitrogen inerting in all fuel tanks.