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The book comes with a CD-ROM that contains forms and templates that can be downloaded and customized. The authors distill the knowledge gained in their combined 60 years of experience in project management, software engineering, systems engineering, metrics, quality assurance, configuration management, training, documentation, process improvement, and team building.

Whether you are new to process improvement or an experienced professional, Interpreting the CMMI R A Process Improvement Approach saves you time wasted on false starts, false promises by marketers, and failed deadlines. Get A Copy. Hardcover , pages. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 7. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters.

Sort order. Hence the book does not rise much above an overview book. Nevertheless this is one book which everyone should read if before they tackle the CMMI elephant! Raul rated it it was amazing Jul 22, David B Carlson rated it liked it Mar 07, Alex Ott rated it liked it May 15, Ben added it Aug 31, If you are required to submit a project plan, why not have a procedure that tells you how to write one, plus an example of one that you can copy and paste from?

Does your manager ever ask you how difficult a particular program might be? Does he ever ask you how long it will take you to code each program? Or does he just give you a list of programs assigned to you and tell you when they are due? Do you ever have heartburn over his estimates? Do you ever say anything, or do you just work unpaid overtime because of his bizarre schedule? Does this scheduling process always work perfectly? But it does give you some room for negotiation. Processes are like recipes.

A recipe tells you the ingredients, how to mix the ingredients, what temperature to use, and how long to cook something. And recipes also leave room for some experimentation and modification. Some recipes even give you suggestions on how to make changes to the dish.

A process as used in process improvement usually is defined at a somewhat high level, with associated procedures supporting the process. The procedures are written in much more detail than the process. Examples follow. This risk process is being developed because the project managers in your organization have been unable to proactively predict troubling issues that end up affecting the delivery of their products to the customer.

Perhaps they have delivered late because of high staff turnover and being unable to get enough people with the AU Another risk may be that the budgets for the projects are usually overrun. So, all of the project managers get together and determine a risk management process that they feel will cover all or at least most of the risks they encounter. It is too general. We are trying to find a way to document how we do work in the organization in a consistent way so that everyone will do things somewhat similarly, and so that people can benefit from the good work being done by others.

You have a process. How do we do the steps in your process? The managers are tasked with devising procedures for how to do what they have written as the steps in the process. One of the ways they might do this identification is to start tracking the problems they have in delivering products, and then find trends. From the list of trends, create a list of the ten most frequently occurring problems on the projects.

The procedures would then discuss how to use the information in the list to estimate risks that might occur on another project. The managers would need to come up with procedures for how to determine what would put a risk into category 1, 2, or 3. These are just simplistic examples used to illustrate process versus procedures. So why is focusing on process important? Why not focus on the product or the people or the technology used? Let us explain. Writing standards for what a Requirements Specification should look like is a product focus.

You are focusing on the template itself. For example, you might want your Requirements Spec to list all of the requirements for the system, categorize them as to whether they are system-level requirements, software requirements, hardware requirements, safety requirements, performance requirements, and so forth. Great, this is a good thing to do. But, how does anyone know which AU This is where a requirements process comes in. It would tell you not only what the spec should look like, but how to write it—how to fill in the blanks for each paragraph in the spec.

Predicting Defects Using Information Intelligence Process Models in the Software Technology Project

A requirements process would also tell you how to elicit requirements from your stakeholders e. The product focus would then continue on to what a Design Spec should look like, what coding standards should be followed, what test cases should consist of, and so forth. The process focus would then give guidelines to the people responsible for doing this work on how to do it. Why not focus on the people? But, not everyone can be as brilliant as everyone needs to be everyday. Today I will be brilliant. Rather than having people work harder, have them work smarter.

Why not focus on technology? Have you ever heard the saying, garbage in garbage out? We have been paid big bucks for converting existing systems from one language or database to another. There are even tools now that will do that for you with a lot of work. What do you get? The same system you always had with both the old problems and the new ones. Technology does not provide a quick fix. But, it is the one answer that executives are most likely to choose because technology is easily quantifiable and easily budgeted. Look at the dot. Most of those companies sold quick-fix technologies without any underlying analysis of the problems organizations faced.

Most of the dot. Technology is our friend, but it is not the only answer to our problems. Why focus on process? What personal benefit can you gain from all this work? Well, the following examples are drawn from personal experience in some of the organizations we have helped along this path. He was never sure before whether he had the latest copy of the source code. Now, after following procedures for change control, he is reasonably sure that the code he is using to make updates is actually the code used in production.

No more searching for hours for the right program. These are the changes I made. And they spent hours trying to figure out what the actual requirements were AU You test to ensure the requirements have been met. Now, with process for the Requirements Traceability Matrix and the Requirements Specification, the testers spend less time figuring out what to do and more time actually testing. It has greatly simplified their jobs and greatly improved the testing of the resulting products. Now, with the use of the process for devising a Statement of Work, and the focus on the Project Planning process area, the organization is aware of the number of projects requested, what their initial requirements are, the approximate number of staff needed, the approximate size and complexity of the project, and how to prioritize the projects.

Requests for support have actually been deferred based on these measures. For example, the director of software engineering is talking to developers, and in some cases, the developers are talking back. This is good. Quality Assurance QA is reviewing products and processes across several projects. They are seeing the results of these processes and the problems, as well as the differences between the ways project teams perform. QA is also talking to the EPG the process improvement team , and in some cases, swaying them to change some decisions made, based on how things are actually working or not working.

So, is process the only answer? Process is part of the answer. Process, when supported by training, enough money, enough skilled people, proper tools, and management commitment, can help your organization. Models What is a model, and why do I have to use one? A model is considered a guideline of best practices found by studying other highly functioning and successful organizations. A model does not contain the steps needed or the sequence of steps needed to implement a process improvement program. The Requirements Management process area recommends that you track changes to requirements.

There are many models to choose from, depending on the problems in your organization that you want to solve. Why use a model? Most of these organizations failed. It is not easy to write a model. It takes a long time and it costs a lot of money. And remember, the models are summaries of the best practices of effective, successful organizations. So, it would behoove someone to follow most of the practices documented in these models. Most models allow an organization to substitute alternative practices for those practices in the chosen model that do not fit the organization.

But beware—the more alternatives you select, the more you deviate from best practices in a model, the less likely you are of improving the problems in your organization. A brief overview of some of the more frequently used models follows. Please do not consider this overview exhaustive, as we simply summarize the basic thrust of each model. We do not purport to be experts in all of these models. Those of you who are experts in any of the models may take exception to some of our statements. These statements are offered once again only as high-level summarizations.

The ISO series is a set of documents that discuss quality systems to use when instituting quality assurance in an organization or enterprise. ISO itself is a guideline that directs the user as to which set of documents to use and the interrelationship of quality concepts. ISO , , and deal with external quality assurance pursuits, while ISO deals with internal quality assurance. ISO is used to ensure that quality systems are delivered by the supplier during several stages of creation which may include design, development, production, installation, and servicing.

This document is the most pertinent to software development and maintenance. ISO requires that a documented quality system be implemented, with procedures and instructions. ISO further specifies that this quality system be integrated throughout the entire life cycle. Most folks nowadays call it the CMM for Software. The reason for this appellation is that after the CMM was developed, several more CMMs relating to different areas were generated e.

The CMM was created to help manage organizations that develop software. The CMM was created by analyzing the activities of highly functioning software organizations; that is, those organizations that consistently delivered software systems to their customers on time, within the budget, and that actually worked. These activities became the key practices in the CMM, and the practices themselves were grouped into categories called key process areas. There are 18 key process areas that focus on the best practices found among the organizations reviewed.

The key process areas concentrate on such things as managing requirements, managing changes, creating project plans, tracking estimates against actuals, implementing quality assurance activities, instituting peer reviews, and training personnel in processes related to their job duties. Well, both were developed to improve the quality of systems. ISO was developed in Brussels, Belgium, and related originally to the manufacturing arena.

Over the years, the CMM made its journey across the ocean and is now used almost as much internationally as within the United States alone. ISO also crossed the pond making inroads into the United States in manufacturing businesses, concentrating most often in the Midwest. ISO focuses mainly on broader issues of quality within an entire enterprise or company.

Executives of these organizations are often interviewed. The main product of ISO is the creation of a quality manual that discusses quality initiatives to be implemented throughout the enterprise. The CMM takes a much more limited view. The CMM focuses on only software-intensive projects. It does not look at an entire enterprise or company. It describes an organization admittedly, ambiguously as several projects managed under one director an example. Interviews may include an executive manager or two, but mostly focus on project managers and their team members. No, it is like comparing apples and oranges.

Once again, although the two methods have similar goals, they are very different in implementation and scope. The CMMI is over pages long. So, clearly, the two models are different. The same comparison holds true for the CMMI. The CMM focuses on the software domain of organizations.

However, because the problems with software organizations were deemed to fall mostly in the management area, this book can be, and has been, used not only in software organizations but broadened to include most management situations. The model that inspired this book is the CMMI.

That expansion includes systems engineering as well as software engineering, integrated product and process development specialized teams that design and develop systems , and acquisition procuring systems, and monitoring the procurement and management of contracts awarded. However, parts of this model may also be extracted and used in other business endeavors not just aviation. Six Sigma is also being used more and more frequently. Six Sigma attempts to reduce the variation in processes to a very small number. Six Sigma focuses on AU Six Sigma consists of defining project goals and objectives; measuring narrow ranges of potential causes and establishing a baseline; analyzing data to identify trends and causes of the deviations; improving the processes at the identified cause level; and controlling the problem.

Six Sigma focuses heavily on selecting a limited number of issues, measuring the problem e. The two can complement each other. Six Sigma requires a high degree of sophistication in aligning business objectives with Six Sigma techniques, as well as a high degree of sophistication in other areas of management business, quality, process, and change. Business Goals and Objectives Much is made about aligning your process improvement effort to the business goals that the organization is trying to achieve.

This alignment is easier said than done. In fact, what we most often hear from executives when we ask them what they are trying to accomplish by doing process improvement is to reduce the number of people they need to staff projects and have the people who survive the cut become more productive—that is, have the people do more work in less time. Of course, that does not include the executive doing the talking. Well, process improvement will not allow you to significantly reduce your task force. In fact, especially over the short term, you may have to actually hire more people in order to structure process improvement efforts and staff them adequately.

If these organizations could buy Level 3 and there is some discussion as to the ability to buy a level rating , these organizations would be most willing to go that route. There is a technique that can be used to help define business goals and process improvement focus areas. It is called the Goal—Question—Metric technique. In this AU It should actually be called the Problem—Goal—Question—Metric approach.

During the workshop, a list of the most common problems found in the organization is presented. Questions are then asked relating to the problem, and the areas of the CMMI are used to help focus ensuing process improvement efforts. The approach starts with a business goal and works backward to identify improvement actions to achieve that goal.

Goal: Improve our requirements change process. Question: How can we improve our requirements change process? Metric: Number of requirements changes submitted, approved, implemented, or canceled versus the number of original requirements documented. Time it takes to implement a change in requirements. The main difference between this approach and addressing the seven process areas in Level 2 of the CMMI staged representation simultaneously is that structuring your process improvement program to focus on key problems in your organization helps define the scope of initial efforts and their sequence.

Some members of your process improvement team and of your organization will find this approach more relevant to their everyday work, and will therefore be more enthusiastic about the program. Although we have discussed this Goal—Question—Metric approach, we do not strongly recommend it for low-maturity organizations.

Why not? Because most beginning organizations do not have a clear understanding of business objectives and business goals. They also will not readily admit that there are problems in the organization. The example we used was pertinent to requirements problems in systems. However, most true business objectives are at a much higher level. For example, an organization that clearly understands business objectives would state that one of their business objectives would be to improve customer satisfaction by 10 percent by reducing the number of defects embedded in their systems and delivered to their customers by 15 percent.

To truly be effective, this type of business objective, backed up by this metric, requires a sophisticated approach to identifying problems in organizations; fully defining the problem; relating the problem to existing, documented business goals; measuring the current process and its results; and measuring the expected versus realized outcome. This approach is way beyond most low-maturity organizations.

So, what to do? Since the approach above is used to structure your improvement efforts, why not use an officially approved appraisal method? The organization will then decide which process areas to focus on first. Guidelines for beginning and assessing your process improvement trek are given in later chapters in this book.

Problems The process focus is not without its challenges. And when you do a wonderful job on the project in crisis and bring it in on time, your reward is to get your butt kicked on the other two projects because you are late delivering to them. This example is an example of a dysfunctional, low maturity, yet commonly found organization.

The same problems occur in process improvement. You staff up with five or six full-time process improvement team members, only to find them pulled off when their former projects run into trouble. Training for process improvement is absolutely mandatory, but once the people get the training and start to do the work, they become overwhelmed and decide to go back to their old jobs, or leave the company for greener pastures. The answer? If he wants it, it will cost him—in dollars, people, and time, including his time. Commit to trying to improve your organization.

And mention to the boss that most improvement models focus improvement activities on management—not worker bees and practitioners. See if AU Educating your boss, as well as the rest of the organization, is key to a smooth transition to the process improvement path. Process improvement is really about change. Most folks do not get to this state when working for an organization— they simply go elsewhere. So, no one in your organization will be really excited to adopt a program that makes them change the way they do their jobs. Most people have developed over the years their own system or process for doing their jobs.

And if you are the process improvement specialist, you will be responsible for making them change. And guess what—you will also have to change the way you do your job. Summary This chapter has attempted to introduce the novice process improvement individual to some terms and concepts commonly used, and why process improvement is important. This chapter should be considered a high-level overview. More information is contained in the following chapters of this book. The power of the CMMI lies in that it lets you define your job—how you do it and what gets produced from it.

But with power comes responsibility.

If you want to control how you do your jobs, you need to fully participate in the process improvement program. Mistakes are a good thing. It shows you are trying. It shows you are improving after your mistakes go down. However, the predominant mantra in the industry is that mistakes are bad.

If you make a mistake, you get hammered for it. There is no middle ground, no shades of gray. You are either percent right or percent wrong. With process improvement, if no mistakes are made, then the processes are probably not being used. Also, please remember that although we say that process improvement involves skilled professionals with an objective, unbiased, professional attitude toward their work, everyone on the process improvement team has a large amount of personal investment in this effort. So things do tend to get personal. Try to see the big picture and try to be flexible.

The reader is directed to read the next chapter concerning CMMI representations along with this chapter. Terms and Definitions Before we begin, there are two very important concepts that need to be discussed. They are: n Implementation n Institutionalization Implementation is simply performing a task within the process area. It is a set of related tasks that address an area of concern. Institutionalization is the result of implementing the process again and again. The process has become totally integrated into the organization. The process will continue after those who created it have left the organization.

An infrastructure to support this way of doing business exists and provides support for the process and the individuals following it. A project is not just a software project. A project can also consist of many projects. The term program is not used.

A project is also expected to have a start and end date, with a formal project manager assigned. A task order may be a project or several task orders may make up a project. It all depends on size, structure of the organization, complexity, deliverable to be produced, and number of staff assigned to various roles. Another term that is used frequently, is extremely important, yet is very difficult to define is organization. What is an organization?

Well, normally an organization is a series of projects currently underway within a department. The term organization also implies people, structure of the people, and physical plant and equipment. So, if you are a developer you might be working on coding five programs to maintain an automobile insurance system, developing a small Web site to track customer complaints about medical reimbursement, and beginning to design a document management system to document work hours performed for payroll purposes.

That sounds like three projects to me. However, depending on how your place of business is set up, you could be working in three different organizations—the auto insurance department, the medical insurance department, and the payroll department. Or, you could be working in just one organization—the technical information systems department. An organization can also consist of one individual! So, the definition of an organization depends.

Our advice is to develop improvement programs and resultant appraisal based on the three different organizations mentioned in the first scenario automobile insurance, medical insurance, and payroll as three separate organizations. Because each organization has different rules it must follow.

Most frequently terms

For example, automobile insurance may have state department of transportation regulations to follow, medical insurance may have federal medical regulations to follow, and payroll may have federal IRS and state tax regulations to follow. Therefore, the processes will be different. For example, do you think a customer service department answering billing complaints from customers should be run the same way as a nuclear power plant? The nuclear power plant has environmental regulations, nuclear regulations, and other federal, state, and local policies it must implement in its processes. The customer service organization probably has much fewer.

The margin of error allowed in the safety factor is also significantly different. With CMMI, the definition of organization becomes even less clear. An organization can be one department headed by one director. Or it can be expanded AU Our advice? Do not bite off more than you can chew when beginning process improvement efforts. They tend to mushroom anyway. Start small, like with the project in the earlier example doing Web-based medical insurance design and coding, and increase your efforts as necessary. Basically, maturity levels organize the process areas.

Within the process areas are generic and specific goals, as well as generic and specific practices. Common features was a term used to categorize the generic practices. Chapter 4 discusses this idea in more detail. Removing the term common feature makes it easier for the user to understand the model structure. Figure 3. The continuous representation has specific goals that organize specific practices and generic goals that organize generic practices.

Each specific and generic practice corresponds to a capability level. Specific goals and specific practices apply to individual process areas. Model Structure for the Staged Representation The staged representation is organized by assigning process areas to maturity levels. Maturity Levels A maturity level signifies the level of performance that can be expected from an organization.

For example, Maturity Level 1 organizations have ad hoc processes. Maturity Level 2 organizations have a basic project management system in place. There are five maturity levels. A process area is a group of practices or activities performed collectively in order to achieve a specific objective. Goals Each PA has several goals that need to be satisfied in order to satisfy the objectives of the PA. There are two types of goals: 1.


Specific goals SG : goals that relate only to the specific PA under study 2. Generic goals GG : goals that are common to multiple PAs throughout the model. These goals help determine whether the PA has been institutionalized. Practices Practices are activities that must be performed to satisfy the goals for each PA.

Each practice relates to only one goal. There are two types of practices: 1. Specific practices SP : practices that relate to specific goals 2. Generic practices GP : practices associated with the generic goals for institutionalization For example, in the Project Planning PA, one of the specific practices is to write a Project Plan. Another is to estimate the number of people needed and to derive a schedule. Subpractices and examples are provided to help explain the practices in more detail. Because goals are at a high level, each goal has practices associated with it.

Practices are specific tasks that should be performed within the PA to achieve the goal. There are both generic and specific goals. There are both generic and specific practices. Process Management These PAs consist of common functions related to defining, planning, implementing, and monitoring a process. Notice that they all reside at the organizational level, not the project level, and are listed in increasing order of sophistication and complexity.

They are listed in increasing order of sophistication and complexity. Base practices were those practices that resided at Capability Level 1. Base practices essentially involved identifying the scope of work and performing the process informally without following a documented process description or plan. Advanced practices were those practices that showed more sophistication and rigor in a process area.

Advanced practices could build on base practices. Now, in version 1. They match the practices in the staged representation. The degree to which the practices are performed may vary from individual effort to individual effort. A capability level is not a maturity level. Capability Level 1 simply means that the specific practices are performed in some way in your organization. So, these practices are very simple building blocks in the stratification of attaining capability levels. Goals and Practices Specific goals and practices relate to specific process areas and relate to tasks that make sense for that process area only.

For example, Project Planning requires a project plan. Quantitative Project Management requires a process performance baseline. Generic goals and practices relate to multiple process areas. So, Requirements Management, if desiring a Capability Level 2, would have to establish an organizational policy, plan the process, and train people.

Project Planning and Organizational Process Focus would have to do the same as well. So the generic goals and practices can be applied to all process areas. Both specific goals and practices and generic goals and practices must be satisfied to achieve the capability level. Alternatives that clearly and unequivocally accomplish a result that meets the goal may be substituted. Again—required, expected, and informative components. Generic Goals and Practices Basically, each capability level has one generic goal associated with it.

Each generic practice maps to only one generic goal. The generic goals and generic practices map directly to one or more PAs, and basically summarize the concepts of each PA. The generic goals and generic practices are displayed in Table 3. Table 3. These chapters summarize the concepts expressed in the PA and generic practices and are arranged by maturity level.

Later chapters give more information pertaining to implementation. Target Profile A target profile is a list of process areas and their corresponding capability levels. One example is when comparing maturity levels to capability levels. Capability Level 3 can only be determined as equivalent to Maturity Level 3 in the staged representation when all of the goals for all of the process areas at Maturity Levels 2 and 3 in the staged representation have been met. So the target profile 3 would include satisfying seven process areas at Maturity Level 2 plus eleven process areas at Maturity Level 3.

An organization may decide on its own unique target profile. For example, a contracting company specializing in providing third-party Independent Verification and Validation services may select a target profile of Capability Level 2 for Project Planning and Project Monitoring and Control, and Capability Level 3 for Verification and Validation. Target Staging Target staging is a sequence of target profiles that describe the path of process improvement the organization will take.

Care should be taken to ensure that dependencies between the generic practices and process areas are implemented. This is where the organization documents the PAs it will focus on, justifies this approach, and tracks the PAs back to business objectives. Achievement Profile Used in the continuous representation, this profile is basically a bar chart of each process area that shows how much of the PA has been achieved and how much has not been achieved. The retrofit integrates with the existing CMM controller hardware and compatible probe system to provide a versatile multi-sensor CMM offering both non-contact and touch probe inspection.

Furthermore, this book describes the fundamental programming and testing techniques for successful agile solution delivery. I have no power to my fuel solenoid run wire and I am having trouble - Answered by a verified Technician Problem Solving - Ability to apply common sense understanding to carry out instructions furnished in written, oral, or diagram form.

Then, go back and read the details of Part Two. The type of electrical The simple design and operation of GAGE R allows non-experienced shop personnel to perform 1, 2, and 3D measurement routines quickly and easily without the need for computer keyboard entries. The traditional model offers five levels of maturity, typically defined as 1 — Initial, 2 — Managed, 3 — Defined, 4 — Managed, 5 — Optimized, as seen in the diagram below: to save the area into memory and return to CFM or CMM measuring mode. However, the variation in these diagrams shows how circuits are mapped out in different ways to accomplish different ends.

Capability Maturity Model CMM broadly refers to a process improvement approach that is based on a process model. Here the organizations process are ad-hoc and mostly an organization does not provide a stable environment. In the first procedure, technicians record multiple measurements of a fixed ball mounted to the CMM's table. Do NOT use the dimensions on these diagrams to calculate pressures or internal ballistics. After you have clicked on the OK button, the ternary diagram is displayed on a new Excel sheet because the Sheet option has been selected for outputs.

Readers Experienced with Process Improvement If you are new to CMMI but have experience with other process improvement models, such as the Software CMM or the Systems The ability to produce quality software on schedule and within budget is a critical success factor in most IT organizations. CMM also refers specifically to the first such model, developed by the Software Engineering Institute SEI in the mids, as well as the family of process models that followed. Now it is time to unveil my revised Capability Maturity Model for Deep Learning: the black dot in the diagram signifies the starting point.

For others that might read this thread the motor black lead as well as the battery black lead connect to the same point on the circuit board, a hole in the corner that requires a through bolt and a self locking nut. It helps organizations to develop the maturity of their workforce, and to address their critical people issues. You can edit this template and create your own diagram. In the world of digital manufacturing, where machines are capable of making parts to micron accuracies, being able to measure precisely and reliably is essential to qualifying every part that we make.

See more PowerPoint presentation slides of business diagrams. The secret to producing software better, cheaper, faster is disciplined software engineering management practices supported by appropriate technology. We specialize in the repair and calibration of all makes and models of dimensional instrumentation. Edit any error map. Place the sensor in the air stream. Measure your actual cases and use the data supplied by the cartridge maker and the propellant manufacturer. Service Bulletin 9. Format : PDF. Former CMM controller rack Fig. CMM Lawn Mower pdf manual download. Software CMM follows an activity based approach, lacked integration and had KPA's ineffective to detect architecturally significant flaws.

The model describes a five-level evolutionary path of increasingly organized and systematically more mature processes. CMM relies on three interdependent elements: coordination, management and meaning. This theory of CMM advocates on articulation of a process on developing prepositions on given situation by the people. CMM rather than on the maturity questionnaire. In other words.

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Over view of current Software Process Improvement Models []. Metric Studio supports multiple diagrams. Listed below are all the parts in your current order, including the parts selected from the Model in the diagram above. Interpreting a ternary diagram. Figure 8. Every Aberlink CMM fully supports the range of probe heads and both touch trigger and scanning probes supplied by Renishaw. Modem co-ordinate measuring machines CMM and software allow the quality of gears to be checked.

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Zeiss CMM programming skills. A capability maturity model CMM provides a structure for organizations to baseline current capabilities in cybersecurity workforce planning, establishing a foundation for consistent evaluation. The Link the chart to the input data option can be used to update the diagram in real time when the input data is modified. What is people CMM? B AMM. Achieving level 3 bridges the semantic gap Problem Solving - Ability to apply common sense understanding to carry out instructions furnished in written, oral, or diagram form.

CMM is the simplest model in the world if we connect it to Business situations. This PowerPoint diagram of a ladder is an ideal template to present a capability maturity model in 5 levels. It breaks down the main processes into subprocesses that can then be analyzed and improved on a more intimate level. Enhance the capability of your current CMM. So in this particular case [see graph a ], the lines are showing a pattern of fanning out, they are more tightly grouped here and more spread out here.

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Calibrate any CMM. The PowerPoint diagram of a ladder as 4 step maturity model is suitable for business presentations.