By a royal decree made on January 20, , a commission was appointed to organize the congress. Collangettes , and Robert Lachmann. The Congress' sections focused on the past, present and future of Arabic music , and believing such music to be in decline, it made recommendations for its revitalization and preservation. In addition, proposals for the modernization and standardization of Arabic music were presented, including a proposal to standardize the Arabic tuning system to 24 equal steps per octave quarter tones , substituting an equal-tempered system for the earlier non-tempered system.
Karol Mullaney-Dignam Natl. Nova, Lisbon ; Dr. Among my various colleagues who. David Josephson Brown Univ. Judith Pinnolis Librarian, Brandeis Univ. In her brilliant and painstaking study, The Lachmann problem Jerusalem , Dr. Ruth Katz Professor emerita of the Music Dept. These proved most useful for the factual and corroborative information they provided.
Our thanks are also due to the following copyright holders for permission to use unpublished material: Ms. Sheila Hughes granddaughter of H. Farmer ; Hugh Lionel Gould grand-nephew of A. Finally, I shall always be grateful to my loving wife Marcia who, with patient endurance and encouraging support, awaited the completion of this project. Sachs; and W. Pesenti Italy , N. Carra de Vaux, and Dr. The University of Glasgow has for long been informally known as Glasgow University, and for the ease of reference is cited thus here.
However, transliterations cited from sources employing an outdated system such as those in Chap. In recognition of his penetrating researches, Farmer was invited to participate at the First International Congress of Arab Music Cairo, It was at this historic meeting that he came in contact with other renowned specialists from Europe and the Arabic-speaking world and during which he maintained a journal recording his daily activities, interactions with fellow delegates and dignitaries, and varied perambulations throughout the city.
Curiously, his journal, along with the detailed minutes he kept for his Commission on History and Manuscripts, were never published. Both documents, presented here, reveal aspects and inner workings of the Congress that have hitherto remained unknown. Yet, as he continued to accrue international recognition during the sevenyear period prior to his attendance at the Congress, hardly anything was known of his private and professional life up through the time of his Cairene sojourn. It is a remarkable.
Neubauer, Henry George Farmer i, xi, it was this well-balanced masterpiece that brought Farmer international fame as the most prominent connoisseur of Arab music of his day. At the time of the Congress, three more articles were then in press. As the sole delegate representing Great Britain, he interacted with other noted European, North African, and Middle Eastern musicologists, composers, musicians, and music critics3 to address problems and exchange ideas of mutual interest from both Eastern and Western perspectives in what then proved to be a most significant event in the musicological world.
Early on, his writings on the history of military music and bands were highly praised, as was his more recent excursion into medieval Scottish music. Yet more widely recognized were his persistent prolific and wide-ranging scholarly publications concerning medieval Arab music theory and organology, which firmly established his reputation in academic musicological circles throughout Europe and North America.
In its lengthy introduction, he began with an appeal for comprehensive bibliographies, then explained how he had compiled, ordered, and annotated the citations contained therein, including the pitfalls he encountered during his searches in British and foreign libraries. All told, it comprises a useful summary. Among the citations included in Sources were those taken from a short list of important Arabic manuscripts that Farmer itemized for the plenary session at the close of the Congress,7 but which, regrettably, was not incorporated in the report of his Commission that was published in both the Arabic and French Proceedings.
It was the latter publication for which he was awarded an honorary D. Only numbered copies were issued. It was compiled to identify and locate manuscripts of musical importance, including those that were published. See Chap. Both were published in Cairo and issued in and , resp. Brill edition had passed, and that, to date, no attempt had been made to study this particularly curious and inviting document.
In each, it will be seen that his participation was highly praised by his Arabic-speaking counterparts, who admired him as a Western pioneer in Arab music, and that his stewardship of the Commission on History and Manuscripts was exemplary. See App. In , Sheila Craik, the then music librarian at gul,18 and her colleague David Weston of the Special Collections Department, produced an informative twenty-three page catalog, Tunic—tinsel—toga,19 for an exhibition that was held in the library from Oct. Additional entries are listed in fc Henry George Farmer.
Henry George Farmer autobiographical memoir , comprises a carefully edited ten-page ms. The autobiography was never written, but it seemed appropriate to build the exhibition round these three headings, albeit loosely, since there were many overlappings and interconnections in his long and varied life. Craik before the Friends of gul in Oct. Moreover, A. Racy Making music 7, n. Years later Dec. In a letter to me dated Feb. What [he did] regret is, that the articles from The musical standard —6 [were] not included, due to the fact that [he was] unable to get appropriate printing material from the journal in time.
It featured documents, photos, and miscellaneous programs covering the years to from the Farmer Collection. Moreover, Mervyn McLean, a highly respected ethnomusicologist, included a brief biographical sketch of Farmer in his more recently published Pioneers of ethnomusicology, Tamarac, fl , — It is fair to say that my eventual involvement with Farmer began unwittingly on May 19, , several days after my return from an academic year in Spain under the auspices of the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, when Carl Cowl, a former non-registered student who had audited several of my classes at Columbia University, came to our Morningside Heights apartment to seek advice on a musicological project.
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In the course of our conversation, I also learned that he had obtained a b. I had already known he was an avowed Marxist and a respected Yiddish scholar. Until June 4, , there was no word from Carl. Addicted to wanderlust, his constant peregrinations found him either visiting his offsprings and friends scattered throughout the u. Between his visits he was involved with lectures that supported his uk sojourn. Fatigued from the Glasgow trip, he returned to New York on the 19th of February , yet somehow mustered the strength to pay me a visit two days later.
There was much to discuss. The last of our three meetings in April occurred on the 29th, before his flight to London on the following day. On the 1st of September, he made his third visit to Glasgow, where, having previously corresponded with Sheila Craik, a workstation was arranged for him in the Special Collections Room. By the 11th, he sent me a postcard stating: Turning up more and more items as I go through the collection. The number of unpublished items alone is enormous. To pinpoint date, provenance is terribly time consuming, requiring consulting the actual publications.
Iconography another big job. The files of letters alone, containing important ethnomusicological data, will take more time than I have. Looks like I will have to come back later in the year. Have no time to see persons still alive who knew him. Everything necessary for a biography is here. I wish I were a writer! I have only three working days left before returning to London. Your plan was useful. Console me! The size of the finished bibliography, just in terms of volume of cards will be far over three times the number I started with. The number of ms. May not get back to ny till after the New Year.
I need a friendly word of encouragement. Mind you! No one has given Farmer his due appreciation. Just think of how many future studies could be generated based on facets of his long and intense career. Those letters, which you had the pleasure of holding in your hands, and the material contained therein. In all, your letter was barometric; it measured the sense of the impending work. As before, I continue to believe that such an undertaking will prove monumental.
It is only a shame, at this juncture, to forestall those interviews with both his surviving relatives and friends. This must. And we must continue to pay our deepest appreciation to Sheila Craik for her part in this important project. In the first of two lengthy letters from London dated Oct. Because half of my present collection is non-musical. My feeling is: We have no right to exclude any of his work. We are dealing with a genius with several careers and areas of interest. Many of his source books are profusely written in. How does [one] itemize that sort of thing? On November 3rd, , she wrote: As you will realize, there is only a certain amount of work I can do to assist you in my normal course of duty.
I imagine that as your work progresses you may need to do quite a bit of checking of sources and details, and if you would find it helpful, I would be prepared to do some work of this type in the evening. I do not have a lot of free time, but I could probably manage 2—3 hours a week. Having got involved with the Farmer Collection over the years, I would be pleased to be further involved by helping with your project.
When you come up here later on this month, perhaps you could let me know what you think of this idea. To Carl her reply was like a shot of adrenalin.
Henry George Farmer and the First International Congress of Arab Music (Cairo 1932)
He returned to Glasgow for his fourth and extended sojourn where, on Monday, November 21st, , he began his first twelve-hour day session a. From his rather detailed letter, written that evening, I learned that he met with Ms. Craik at p. During that strategic meeting, the project focused on a plan that differed greatly from our original scheme.
In an earlier letter dated Dec. Immensely gratifying! Carl returned to New York in the latter part of February , after concluding numerous visits in Europe, bringing home more than 2, cards. Back in the city, he was now under medical care for exhaustion. In April, he informed Craik about his condition, adding that he had begun to transfer his material to index cards.
But time had lapsed to such an extent that, only on November 20th, was he able to send Ms. With an eye on its final form, Carl added: Your promise to consult with colleagues is encouraging and welcome, especially since the use of the bibliography will have as its centerpiece the Farmer Collection at Glasgow University. Your opinion and that of your associates will enrich our work from a viewpoint we musicologists may not always know.
We are of course, aware of the affect our bibliography will have on the inevitable emergence of a definitive life of Farmer. Our Plan therefore will include relevant material of biographical significance. In January of , I returned to Spain under the auspices of a Fulbright grant. In additional responses during the following year Feb. He was then physically tired and most distraught, having received a notice of eviction from his landlord.
In spite of the awkwardness of that meeting, he assured me that the project was progressing. Yet, for whatever reason, it was the very last time I saw him. There was only one further written communication from. While one could say that these articles have been superseded by those in the current Grove edition, the former unquestionably offer valuable insight into the history and evolution of our discipline.
Eleven years later, when I reunited with my dear friend Amnon Shiloah on April 3, , at Lincoln Center, during his short visit to New York City, I not only learned that the bibliography was now in print, but that Carl had died three years earlier astoundingly, on the exact same day, April 3, It was indeed a blow to receive such belated and astonishing news.
Two days later, I wrote to Sheila Craik at gul, seeking the procurement of a copy. In the concluding paragraph on p. I am responsible for the arrangement of the bibliography, the introduction, index, biographical note and all editing, expansion and revision. Thus, what began as a mere suggestion in May of and which years later developed as a collaborative endeavor involving the participation of Sheila M.
Craik, ultimately resulted in the publication of the bibliography, in , under the imprint of gul. Having undergone innumerable and painstaking decisions, revisions, and refinements, its final form, supervised by Ms. This long-awaited reference tool, to which Carl devoted the last twenty-one years of his life, constitutes a fundamental stepping-stone towards a full-fledged biography of a remarkable man, musician, and scholar.
As I was already involved in several ongoing projects, such an undertaking was out of the question. Replying that it was noted briefly, she sent me its full citation, which I relayed to Dr. In his response dated Aug. I was also made aware of the inventory of the Farmer Collection, which is accessible online.
In January of , through Ms. The material, received at the end of January, looked promising, but hardly scratched the surface. To progress further, it was necessary to work at gul. Meanwhile Ms. In May of , my wife and I decided to join a tour to Scotland and Ireland that was scheduled to begin in Glasgow on Tuesday, July 23rd. Our plan was to spend the previous week in Glasgow, where I would have access to the Farmer Collection.
Our week in Glasgow proved most rewarding, particularly our initial and my subsequent meetings with Sheila Craik. Other items. Understanding my needs for the project and envisioning the problems I had yet to face, she graciously offered her full collaboration. His final home was in Law, near Carluke in Lanarkshire. Returning home on Saturday, August 3rd, after a memorable two-week guided tour, life proceeded as usual.
The photocopies from Glasgow were awaiting me, and soon after I began logging their contents, again in computer files. After resuming correspondence with Sheila, we had hoped to complete the project by , thereby commemorating the eightieth year of the Cairo Congress. True, we had a decade at our disposal, but I was still involved in a number of scholarly commitments. By December of , we had already agreed upon its final outline, including the appendices.
Thereafter it was a matter of preparing and editing the drafts of each chapter and the appendices, as well as corroborating the information, quoted material, and bibliographic citations inserted therein. During a visit to Jerusalem in December of , I met several times with Amnon Shiloah, who graciously consented to write the Foreword. Sheila not only acted as my official link to gul, but also scrutinized every aspect of the ongoing project, insuring that the material cited from the Farmer Collection was accurate, suggesting additional archival documents that should.
Her access to and familiarity with the Collection was most essential. Raised in a military environment and in an Anglo-Irish community, under the watchful eye of his father, his subsequent lifetime achievements can be appreciated in relation to such a disciplined upbringing. His family belonged to the Berkshire Farmers who were indirectly connected with Henry Farmer —91 of Nottingham,3 the composer of the well-known Protestant Mass in B-flat and other works, and owner of a music warehouse, whom the young Farmer was taken to see in In a letter dated Apr.
His actual birthplace, the Crinkle Military Barracks—whose three-year construction began in —served as the Depot of the Leinster Regiment until it was set on fire on Friday night, July 14, , by a faction of the Irish Republican Army that was against the Anglo-Irish Peace Treaty. A photo of the destroyed barracks can be found in fc He died on Apr. See P. Scholes, The mirror of music, Oxford , i, 41 and , and fc Figure 2. As to his maternal grandparents, they can be traced remotely to the Afflecks and Allans of Scotland.
For the greater part of his professional life, Henry George Farmer was, first and foremost, a musician. As his chosen career, it furnished his main source of livelihood. In Birr, he began his general education at the Regimental School and his musical education, at the age of seven, under the skillful tutelage of Vincent Sykes,6 with whom he studied piano, choral singing, and harmony. He was an intimate friend of Brahms and Joachim, among other renowned continental musicians.
One of his outstanding students was Sir Donald Francis Tovey.
His two operas, Cinderella and The pied piper were premiered in and , resp. As choirmaster and organist at St. There followed clarinet and cornet lessons supervised by army bandmasters. Both Henry and his sister Mattie [Martha],7 who also studied piano and who later became an excellent pianist, were coached by Sykes for the Intermediate Certificate of Trinity College of Music Dublin branch , located in Molesworth Hall.
Andrews was known for his song cycles based on texts by Robert Louis Stevenson and Sara Teasdale, among others. Young Farmer was a chorister at St. Sykes died on April 16, She was born in London in At the time of the census, she was living with her mother and brother in London, with the occupation of army schoolmistress. By , she was residing as a boarder with a family in Surrey, still described as an army schoolmistress.
According to a letter fc She died in Bristol, England on Feb. A note inserted in an Empire Theatre program for the week beginning Feb. He was, in fact, the youngest student enrolled in this celebrated music college Midland tribune [June 17, ], 54; fc Decades later in , in a letter Farmer addressed to Lord [George Francis Hugh] Cambridge, he recalled an incident that occurred at one of those performances fc In March of the following year, at the age of fourteen, Henry left the Emerald Island and headed directly to London, where he proved himself proficient enough to become a back stand second violinist and later clarinetist with the Royal Artillery Band and Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Cavaliere Ladislao J.
From his continued exposure to the highest caliber of military band and orchestral music, he acquired a fundamental grounding in orchestration and became adept at arranging. To that end I was placed in the hands of [an Anglo-Catholic] clergyman who was to train me, and also to tutor me for the London B. Whilst all that went on, I was still pursuing my musical vocation. In , both my father and my tutor died, and being left to my own resources, music reclaimed me.
It functioned both as a military band and full orchestra. Stretton, M. Concurrent with his military duties, he also performed with other local London and suburban theater orchestras. There he spent. At this time, according to the census, Farmer was living with his mother and sister at 49 Samuel St. On January 27, , from 18 Hathwood Gardens, Charlton, Henry wrote the following lines to his mother:. On the 7th February we go to Glasgow for a week and I am not sorry for we have had such a bad season. Tomorrow I will hear whether the Band Committee will publish my book [Memoirs.
I shall be very pleased to get it off my hands. Then I set to work in earnest for Kneller Hall and I hope to be there in a few years. For its publication, he exhausted his entire savings. I doubt if there is another band in the army with a continuous history for so long a period. It was the first regimental band to be officially recognized and provided for in the Army Estimates, and may therefore justly claim to be the pioneer band of the British Army, whilst its history may fairly be stated to represent the growth of the military band in this country p.
From his daughter fc Fuller Maitland had given it his imprimatur. Indeed it was only accepted by the late William Reeves, the music publisher, on condition that it was drastically shortened [to one-fourth of its size], and [that Reeves] himself suggested which cuts should be made. It was in this truncated form that it was published, yet in spite of this, the reviewers received it kindly. Built in , it was originally the country home of the German-born court painter Sir Godfrey Kneller — At the instigation of the then Duke of Cambridge, following the close of the Crimean War —6 , it officially opened on Mar.
It appears that Farmer did not attend the school, judging from a letter he sent years later [ca. What is interesting, according to page 3 of. In November of , at the age of twenty-nine, Farmer resigned from the Royal Artillery Band19 to embark on a career of conducting. New York , it is more likely that Farmer perused the Reeves edition. On Mar. In view of this condition, he was ordered to return to the violin section. At the date of his discharge Nov. It was then located on Deptford High St. The orchestra comprised twelve instrumentalists fc The League concerts proved so successful that he was offered the musical directorship of the Empire Theatre in Leeds , being one of several theatres that belonged to the Moss Empires Ltd.
But, as the fierce winter in Leeds proved detrimental to his health, he accepted a theatrical tour with the musical revue What ho! Ragtime that took him to milder climates at seaside resorts and several industrial towns. As it was his custom, wherever he traveled, to seek out books pertaining to his vast interests, he now added to his acquisition list titles on Scottish music.
A defining moment came a decade later, in Edinburgh while touring with What ho! To this Farmer agreed. The premier performance, however, being the most ambitious production that Moss had ever attempted, took place in London on Dec. Fall — , a noted Austrian composer who was then visiting England, extended his sojourn through the following year. In his words: Tired of touring.
3 editions of this work
I [longed] to settle down in Scotland, where I could study the material I had amassed. I wrote to Moss Enterprises asking to be remembered should a vacancy occur for a conductor in Scotland. Imagine my delight when I received a telegram to start at the Coliseum Theatre, Glasgow in January, Hugh McLeod also died later that year. It was indeed a terrible year for their daughter, Sheila.
These details were obtained from the statutory records in the National Records of Scotland in Edinburgh. The company enlarged it and reopened it as the Empire Palace, which became familiarly known as the Empire. From , it featured two evening performances at and resp. At the time Farmer assumed its musical directorship, the program always began with an orchestral overture, whereas additional music was provided as needed.
Audience prices ranged from 6 pence Gallery , 1 shilling Stalls , 2 shillings Grand Circle , to two shillings and six-pence Fauteuils , and from 10 to 15 shillings for Private Boxes , with extra seats at two shillings and sixpence. As its musical director, he partook in the planning of its programs, rehearsed and conducted its orchestra, hired musicians, and provided the music as well as arrangements for the artists who performed there.
Music Between Cultures
All seats except the gallery were reserved. Lamentably, the landmark theater, which closed its doors on Mar. Sauchiehall St. For an idea of their popularity and the personalities who performed in English music halls, see: D. Hudd, Music hall, London ; P. Bailey ed. Bratton ed. Green ed. Maloney, Scotland and the music hall —, Manchester ; and J. Earl, British theatres and music halls, Princes Risborough Hay, Glasgow theatres and music halls: A guide Typescript ms.
Glasgow An earlier and classic study is C. Stuart and A. Park: The variety stage: A history of the music halls from the earliest period to the present time, London Additional unnumbered works included: Elegy: for male voices and orchestra n. Foote; pasted into fc A year after the outbreak of the First World War —18 , Farmer attempted to enlist in the Seaforth Highlanders,29 hoping that he could serve as a clerk. During wwi it consisted of nineteen battalions, which experienced heavy action in Europe, Macedonia, Syria, and Palestine. I consider you are doing good work in organising these unions and I wish you every success in the work fc Theatrical and Variety Artists and of the W.
Frame Benevolent Funds. Farmer was no ordinary musician. The breadth and scope of his humanistic interests were astonishing, given his wide-ranging intellectual curiosity. He was a voracious reader, who took copious notes on such diverse subjects as art, history, literature, music, philosophy, politics, and theology, and was drawn into the webs of freethought, rationalism, secularism, and socialism through his.
It still continues to function. The concerts were given mainly at Kelvingrove Park during the summer and at Winter Gardens during the fall and winter. Along with the orchestra, he also founded in Feb. Farmer fc It was restored to its original status Admired as an articulate communicator, Farmer was equally at ease in expressing his opinions and ideas in writing. With little formal education, he managed to work as a librarian and later as a writer and publisher. He progressed from Anglicanism to Secularism, which today is known as Humanism.
His blasphemous antiChristian articles were published in The freethinker, the British secular humanist journal, which he founded in His worldview was expressed in Secularism, the true philosophy of life: An exposition and a defence, London Additional biographical information can be found in M. Marsh, Word crimes: Blasphemy, culture, and literature in nineteenth-century England, Chicago After a week, Newman acknowledged receipt of the book, but Farmer did not meet Newman until the spring of in London.
Thereafter they continued to meet and to correspond. Newman was indeed a special friend, about whose life Farmer kept detailed files. More quickening to me was the urge to read some of his authorities—Lessing, Winckelmann, Algarotti, Vernon Lee, and one other—James Harris, who may one day reach the pages of Grove. Instead of the urge to rescue souls from perdition hereafter, came the impulse to save human minds and bodies here and now, and very soon I found myself interested in all sorts of reform movements. The vegetarian restaurant of Eustace Miles37 found me an occasional visitor; I was introduced to Tom Shore the secretary of the Land Nationalisation League; became interested in the old Radical Reynolds Newspaper; gravitated to.
Fikrun wa Fann - Topics - Music Between Cultures - Goethe-Institut
In , he completed a book-length homage to Newman, entitled Newman as I saw him, but had great difficulty in finding a publisher fc Foote, the secularist orator fc A series of articles from The freethinker was reprinted in a thirty-two-page booklet, Heresy in art: The religious opinions of famous artists and musicians, London In the Ardrossan and Saltcoats herald Ardrossan [Ayrshire] , from September 28, through January 11, , there appeared a series of letters to the editor which included a discussion between Farmer.
In later years the same Press asked me to bring it up-to-date, but I never found the leisure being slowed up with Oriental studies. As Farmer himself explained fc It was not until after he settled in Glasgow, in , that he prepared an in-depth documented study of The intellectuals. Farmer had fully regained his health and now had ample time to resume his literary work after having just settled in his new position at the Coliseum Theatre. He undertook and completed the translation by the late spring of , but Reeves was not entirely satisfied.
He studied composition and theory at the Paris Conservatoire. During his four-year Tunisian sojourn, he collected folk tunes in various villages, and years later undertook additional journeys to Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, Spain, and Portugal for the same purpose.
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On his return to Paris, in , he gave lectures on Arab music. Wounded during the Siege of the Paris Commune, the working-class insurgency that briefly ruled the French capital from Oct. Auber [—] as the director of the Conservatoire , he was ultimately assassinated because of his political alliances. Ambroise Thomas —96 succeeded him as director. His collection of some Arabic songs, which he translated into French and for which he provided piano accompaniments, has, for the most part, remained unpublished except for Album de chansons arabes, mauresques et kabiles, Paris ca.
Villoteau and J. A year before his death, Farmer completed the final draft Introduction and six chapters of his proposed book, Genius in bondage: A study of the literature, art, music and the stage during the Paris Commune of fc An additional positive review by Joseph Reider appeared in the Jewish quarterly review, 7 4 , —4. Peddie fc Yet, it is curious to learn from a later autobiographical sketch fc As a result of this, [he] became imbued at an early age with interest in and sympathy for the Islamic East and its peoples.
Bantock was then principal of the Birmingham and Midland Institute School of Music, a position he had held since September of Farmer, I much appreciate the kind suggestion contained in your letter of May 2nd, which I have just received, and am very gratified that you should think of dedicating your book to me. I am glad to think that at last it will be accessible to English readers through your translation, which is thus rendering a valuable service.
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The biographical memoir will add further interest to the book and I hope it will have the success to which its merit entitles it. They have a fascination quite unique, and difficult to describe. If you will kindly let me know as soon as the book is published, I will order copies for the University and School of Music Libraries. With all good wishes for the success of the book and with many thanks for the dedication. Believe me, Yours very truly fc The book appeared in November of You will see that the article is not so much a review of the book as a discussion of Oriental and Western music.
Perhaps my views on Oriental music will not commend themselves to you. My own feeling about it is that it is always very interesting, but quite primitive. Some of them are quite good; but now and then he seems to me to have made pure nonsense of the melodies, owing to the mixing of major and minor harmonic notions with the modal melodies.
With best wishes for the New Year fc 47 The second letter dated Jan. Farmer later recalled: Bantock begged me to renounce theatrical life, saying that I ought to be doing something better. Yet I was extremely happy in the music hall where I met many nice people and some real friends. Further, my employers appreciated my services. Those several musicians—including Bantock—who thought I should be elsewhere, did not appreciate the great leisure which the music hall afforded me. I was only engaged each evening from 7 p.
I demurred for two reasons—a wife and family. Yet we continued to be friends and corresponded frequently. We had much in common—philosophically and politically—and I admired him greatly fc Here he began his studies solely as a student of Arabic, working primarily under Thomas Hunter Weir — , a renowned Orientalist who was then lecturer in Arabic.
Two years later, in a letter to Farmer dated Apr. The decline of the music hall and the rise of the b. Duncan Harkness Weir —76 , a renowned Hebrew scholar, served as Prof. After graduating. As Farmer explained, decades later, in a letter dated July 28, to John R. Peddie, Secretary, Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland: Strangely enough, Weir—before he took me as an external student of course I had to matriculate wanted to know my cultural background.
Watt Psychology to prosecute the study of Arabian Music. I usually worked in the G[lasgow] U[niversity L[ibrary]. He then made a remark which altered the whole course of my life. It was a thrust which pierced my innermost soul. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Categories : Arabic music Music festivals in Egypt in music Culture in Cairo Music festivals established in music festivals. Hidden categories: Articles containing Arabic-language text.
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