It is also the most successful. The U.
Our nation sets the world standard for advanced education in nearly every field of science and engineering, and our high-technology firms are responsible for making and commercializing a substantial proportion of the important new technologies of our time. Although the remarkable half-century interval from World War II to the present has been discussed in some detail elsewhere, 4 it is outlined here to provide some perspective on the historical processes that have shaped the current system of support for U.
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Study of the record reinforces appreciation of the depth and range of discoveries that continue to touch all aspects of our lives see Box I. It demonstrates that the federal role is essential in stimulating necessary new ideas and shows additional influences of federal government policy on U. Strengths of the system will continue to serve national purposes well in the future. The evolution of the current system of support for U. He sketched a plan for a national research foundation, to be funded by the federal government and led by scientists from the private sector, that would support basic scientific research and education in areas related to medicine, the natural sciences, and new weapons.
Anxiety over the Cold War, and the loss in of the U. The launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in provoked national anxiety about a loss of U. During the early s, growth in federal funding for health research slowed considerably from its torrid pace in the immediate postwar years.
In the late s, however, several factors converged to give renewed impetus to federal support for biomedical research: key congressional committees with responsibility for health-related research were chaired by powerful advocates of increased federal funding. Congress was appealed to by influential citizen advocates of increased funding for research to combat specific diseases. The calls for increased funding were supported by a strong NIH director, who could point to new scientific understanding of disease processes as the basis for anticipating medical breakthroughs.
The result was the rapid growth of federal funding for health-related research that has continued nearly unabated to the present as new discoveries, and the rise of new diseases such as AIDS, have led to ever-greater commitments to biomedical research.
The energy agencies of the federal government were reorganized twice during the decade. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. By the early s, the industrialized world had largely recovered from the effects of World War II, and key Asian nations were devising new approaches to industrial production. The increasing challenges from competition abroad—in markets for traditional goods as well as a growing list of goods based on advanced technological capabilities—raised new questions regarding the role the federal government should play in assisting U.
This topic remains under active debate today. Much of the federal science and technology investment is intended to help build the base of scientific and technical knowledge and expertise used by government and industry to address important national goals, such as national defense, space exploration, economic growth, and protection of public health and the environment. The federal government has assumed a central responsibility for supporting graduate education in science and engineering because of its critical importance to the continuing vitality of the nation's innovation system.
Policies in many areas can have dramatic, if indirect, effects on private spending on research and development and, hence, innovation. Trade policy can open new markets for high-technology goods.
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Regulation is centrally important for new drugs and agricultural products. A history of successful experiences in mobilizing scientific and technical resources to meet important national needs has contributed to a sense of confidence that U. Geological Survey has led to a revolution in our understanding of Earth's structure, its resources, and the impact of geological forces.
The following are some noteworthy accomplishments over the evaluation period:. Table 4. There are 5 rows and 3 columns, including titles. Select a kind of intellectual property or an associated amount from the left column and read across to learn the relevant figures for either of the two mentioned fiscal years. This could partly be attributed to the Controlled Goods Program 84 that was introduced in It was noted that since the introduction of this initiative, a lot of publications have been backlogged.
Table 5. The column at left lists the mentioned fiscal years. For each of these fiscal years, read across to learn the number of items relevant to contractor reports, scientific reports, scientific literature and conference presentations. The final cell at right directs the reader to consult Annex E for details about national and international awards. A special note cautions readers that figures for conference presentations are only for seven of the eight DRDC research centres. Table 6. Scientific and Technical Publications. Source: DRDC annual reports. There are 4 rows and 6 columns, including titles.
The column at far left lists the 3 mentioned fiscal years, and the next columns list figures for the following categories: contractor reports, scientific reports, scientific literature, conference presentations and, finally, international and national awards. This information was gathered through examination of multiple lines of evidence, including the following:. For other financial contributions to the Program and in-kind contributions, the CPME database was used.
Funding from other sources, including leveraged funding and in-kind contributions from allies, industry, universities, and OGDs, can include the contribution of people, facilities, information, equipment and software. In-kind contributions take many forms, including the contribution of people and facilities. These contributions were only recorded in the CPME by project managers. CPME data did not record salary and wage envelope and operations and maintenance expenditures, but it did record funding from other sources.
Table 7. FTE Cohort in the Program. This table represents civilian FTEs reported as per the system of record.
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Source: HRMS. This table represents civilian FTEs reported by system of record. There are 7 columns and 3 rows, including titles. Select either of these two last categories and read across to learn the values for each of the FYs in scope. Over the same period, external contributions to the Program at the project base, both financial and in-kind, have decreased substantially 65 percent.
Of the overall decrease in in-kind contributions, 92 percent was from external partners. Table 8. There are seven columns and seventeen rows, including titles. Program staff commented that, despite declining in-kind support figures, expertise within the Program has still been managed effectively by the Program. Accordingly, the rationale presented to the evaluation team to explain the decline in in-kind contributions from external sources included the following:. This suggests that the Program is entering a period with substantially reduced internal funding and contributions from external sources.
Moving forward, funding reductions will place increasing pressure on program activities and available resources. A sound performance measurement and management system would provide the information necessary to identify which research portfolios and or lines of business are becoming unsustainable, and where alternative service delivery may be the preferred option. Implement a formalized and integrated resource management system that provides key resource and financial data to support decision makers.
Similarly, program staff who were interviewed underlined the need for integrated ERP and expenditure systems to be in place to permit access to financial and human resources systems.
The current ERP environment contains many costly and overlapping operational and corporate systems, which are neither aligned nor take advantage of the technology resident within the systems already in use. Prior to , senior management was provided with the necessary financial updates on which to base financial and operational decisions about every two months. As of July , senior management began receiving monthly civilian human resources reports through HRMS.
However, CPME was not used as a regular reporting tool for financial and human resources. The nature of reporting through CPME was ad hoc in nature, and was pulled by management upon request. The evaluation team was told by management and staff that during this transition, issues have persisted and in some cases worsened due to a lack of clear roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities related to program performance.
However, during this transition period, not all roles and responsibilities have been clearly identified. Consequently, this has created impediments to properly-functioning organizational mechanisms for gathering and integrating information. The evaluation study found that, at times, unclear delegation of responsibilities was also leading to impediments in reporting.
The evaluation study attempted to compare the relative proportions of expenditures on research and administrative support. In the absence of complete and accurate financial information, this analysis aims to serve as a provisional assessment of whether or not the resources were used efficiently.
Table 9. This table represents the share of resources dedicated to research activities versus management and administration calculated against total estimated costs. There are 3 columns and 11 rows, including titles. The left column lists three overall types of resource disbursals and their total, while the other two rows on its right list each disbursal's amount in thousands of dollars and its percentage relative to the Program's total.
The next row in this list of resource disbursements is Infrastructure PAA 1. Table This table presents the share of resources dedicated to management and administration, and is calculated using only A-Base allocation. The table has four rows and three columns. Management and administration costs were interpreted to be those costs associated with the Chief of Staff and the Corporate Services division.
Management and administration was Given that some administrative support costs are provided by other parts of the Department, such as the ADM IE , Assistant Deputy Minister Information Management , and Assistant Deputy Minister Human Resources — Civilian , the share of costs represented by administration and management is at the higher end of accepted levels of practice.
As part of this work, DRDC is now focussing on a smaller number of priorities, primarily in the strategic, classified, and sensitive domains, while building and harnessing the innovation capacity and capability residing with national and international partners. Action 1. September Action 2. December Action 3. Action 4. April Implement a management structure that ensures coordination of activities across the DRDC Centres, including resource sharing and management and promotion of external partnerships.
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Action 6. March Action 7. The evaluation team used multiple lines of evidence and complementary qualitative and quantitative research methods to help ensure the reliability of information and data supporting findings. The methodology established a consistent approach in the collection and analysis of data to support evaluation findings, conclusions and recommendations.
Information and data were correlated to each evaluation question and corresponding indicators. Data collection methods were selected based on the data required to address performance indicators in the Evaluation Framework Annex D. The following data collection methods were used to gather qualitative and quantitative data for each type of operation in the Evaluation:. The document review was conducted using a customized template organized according to the evaluation questions and indicators.
A five-point scale was presented for each question, along with a section for comments after each question. Twenty-one responses were received. Interviewees were e-mailed an interview guide prior to the interview. Individual interviews were conducted in person or by telephone.
Follow-up questions were posed and answered by e-mail. The interview guide was explained to interviewees before the beginning of the interview, at which time they were encouraged to be open and candid in their responses to the questions.
Notes were taken by the evaluators during interviews, with the consent of the interviewees. The evaluators transcribed the notes taken during the interviews and compared them with one another, with a view to establishing a common record. Interviews were also conducted with industry stakeholders Canadian Association of Defence and Security Industries, Canadian Aviation Electronics, General Dynamics and ING Engineering to determine the nature and degree of effectiveness of partnerships between the Program and Canadian industry.
These interviews also helped to assess alternative program delivery options. Table B-1 lists the organizations interviewed and the personnel involved, the numbers of interviewees, and the number of interviewing sessions that took place. Table B Number of Interviewees by Organization. This table shows the number of interviews conducted and the total number of interviewees per organization. This table shows the number of interviews conducted and the total number of interviewees contacted per organization. There are 16 rows and 3 columns. The column on the left lists the organizations that were interviewed.
The second column lists the number of interviewees, and the third lists the number of interviews that were held, and the last row provides the totals for each of these two groups. Select an organization from the left column and read across to learn the number of interviewees who were approached, and the number of interviews that were held. For totals, read across the last row. Information from international partner organizations UK, US, and Australia was solicited to assess their views on the relevance and performance of the Program.
A request for information was distributed to partner organizations via Canadian Defence Liaison staff in Washington. Follow-up questions were raised and answered by e-mail. Table B-2 lists the limitations associated with this evaluation study, and the mitigation strategies that were applied to address them. Evaluation Limitations and Mitigation Strategies. This table lists the limitations of the evaluation and the corresponding mitigation strategies. The table has 4 rows and 2 columns, including titles. The left column lists three kinds of limitations to the evaluation—including those that are methodological, about financial systems, and regarding attribution to outcomes.
The column to the right lists the mitigation strategies that were adopted to address each limitation. Select a kind of limitation from the column on the left and read across to learn the mitigation strategies that were adopted to counter it.
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To explore further lines of evidence, questionnaires were sent to client organizations. The financial data was compared to other lines of evidence, such as interviews and further consultations with stakeholders. Figure C Table D Evaluation Matrix—Relevance. The 4 columns that follow list the sources of evidence that support each of the indicators.
These sources of evidence are: administrative data; document review; a questionnaire; and key informant interviews. Evaluation Matrix—Performance Effectiveness. These questions appear in the second column. Evaluation Matrix—Performance Efficiency and Economy.
Table E There are 6 rows and 6 columns, including titles. The column at far left lists the mentioned fiscal years, while the columns to its right list the entities, namely, Contractor Reports, Scientific Literature, Conference Presentations and International and National Awards.
Select a fiscal year from the left column and read across to learn the number of publications and awards achieved during that year. Conversely, trends over the years in scope may be discerned by reading down any of the columns. Note that figures for awards, in the column at far right, were not obtained for the last two years in scope.
This table has 5 rows and 3 columns, including titles. The other two columns list the data for the two mentioned fiscal years. This DAOD is currently being revised. Examples of business renewal processes include change management, program formulation, program assessment, and corporate services transition. Footnote 3 TBS. Policy on Evaluation, April 1, Last retrieved December 2, Last retrieved September 17, Footnote 14 Program performance or financial data was not available based on the new version of the PAA In addition, ongoing research in the area of automation and robotics is intended to minimize risks to personnel and enable rapid analyses of large data streams.
The design and development of next generation CBRN protection systems are helping to counter future threats. Footnote 21 Naval Orders , paragraph 4. Footnote 22 DRDC CSS improves the protection of critical infrastructure and emergency preparedness and response and enhances the anti-terrorism capacity of law enforcement agencies and the military. But hypersonic vehicles generally reach their tremendous speeds using supersonic combustion ramjet engines, or scramjets, whichs compress and combust air flowing in at supersonic speeds.
Scramjet vehicles therefore need to hitch rides aboard, and launch from, fast motherships — typically missiles or jets. During one of those trials, in August , the vehicle reached Mach 20 before losing control. Waverider technology could still find its way into a hypersonic weapon, military officials have said. And the U. Army has flight-tested its Advanced Hypersonic Weapon as well.